**Question:**We are able to see sun sign and moon sign predictions in the newspapers. Are the predictions for sun and moon signs similar or are they different from each other? There is a question about how the predictions might differ between these two signs?

- In Indian astrology, daily or weekly predications are given based on the moon signs.
- In Western astrology, daily or weekly predications are given based on the sun signs.

There is a very important difference in the Ayanamsha Calculation between Western and Indian astrology.

There is a longitudinal difference between the Sayana method (Tropical) and Sidereal method (Nirayana) involved in marking the planetary positions. The difference in the number of degrees expressed between the planetary paths defined by the Sayana method and Sidereal method is 24 degrees.

- In Western astrology, the planetary positions are defined by the Sayana method of calculation.
- In Eastern astrology, the planetary positions are defined by the Nirayana method of calculation.

What is Sayana method?

Generally, Indian astrological system considers the beginning of Aries at 0 degrees as the starting point to define the planetary orbits. However, the planetary path of the planets does not start off exactly at 0 degrees in Aries. The planetary path slants away by a few degrees each year. At present the planetary path is at – 24 degrees from Aries, which means the starting point for the planetary path starts at Pisces. Fixing planetary positions starting from Pisces (based on the slant) is the Sayana method. This is exactly the visual result of how the planets will appear to be in the sky. Each year, there is a minor variation in the degree of slant (plus or minus) a few degrees and the starting points are adjusted accordingly. Fixing up the planetary position in this way is followed in the Western Astrological System.

There is a difference in opinion about how many degrees the planetary path slants away each year. And, there is as well a difference in opinion about the exact year the planetary path was situated in the sign of Aries.

What is Nirayana method?

Since, there is a controversy about the exact slant in degrees and the exact year in which the planetary path used to be at Aries, the Indian Astrological system makes use of the default 0 degrees of Aries as the starting point to calculate the starting points, planetary rashis, and bhavas.

This is done by subtracting – 24 degrees (or as applicable) thereby bringing back the positions to zero degrees in Aries to arrive at the Nirayana figures for marking the planetary positions.

Therefore, there is a fundamental difference in the mathematics applicable for the two astrological systems. However, the predictions and characteristics allotted for planets and bhavas are the same in both Indian and Western astrological prediction systems.

**ASPECTS**

There is a major emphasis placed on the aspects factor in western astrology.

The starting point of the ascendant and the starting point of the 10th bhava are very important for Western astrological predictions, they call it the MC. They consider the 10thbhava as a lucky point and the planets that are placed at a distance of 60 degrees through 120 degrees on either sides of the starting point of the ascendant or the starting point of the tenth bhava are considered to provide great support to the first and tenth bhava, thereby improving good results for the native.

In other words, the planets that aspect the starting point of the ascendant and the starting point of the 10th bhava with 3rd or 5th aspects set at 60 degrees difference or 120 degrees difference, this is considered to be beneficial.

In western astrology, predications are being made based on the measurement of the distance between one planet and the other expressed in terms of specific degrees. Aspects are given a major priority. There are trine aspects and square aspects defined accordingly. Square aspects are considered to be those that provide with negative results. Trine aspects are always considered to be those that provide with positive results.

In Indian astrology, we call this as Parvai; however, it is actually the difference in degrees between two planets. The 120 degrees difference is considered to be one of the best aspects between planets. The next beneficial aspect is the trine aspect that is a 60 degrees difference. They say that the 60 degrees difference and 120 degrees difference are good and the planets involved in this aspect provide with good results.

There are square aspects allotted for a distance of 90 degrees, and the 180 degrees aspect for the opposite aspects, which is the 4th and the 7th Kendra Parvai in Indian astrology, is being considered as well. The planets that are considered to be at 90 degrees and 180 degrees are considered to be those that provide with bad results for the native. This rule seems to be applicable regardless of whether they are natural benefics or natural malefics. Whatever be it, they say that these planets land up providing evil effects.

There are no Dhasa periods and related mathematics made use of in Western Astrology. Based on the above parameters general predictions are provided. Next to this, according to Gochara (planetary positions) for instance, consider a person who is aged 20 years. When this is the case to arrive at predictions for this person, the planetary position that might be applicable for the 20th day on which the native was born is taken in to consideration and after a few mathematical calculations, specific predictions are being provided, for a period of one year based on these mathematical derivations for the 20th year. Similarly for someone who is 30 years, 30th day and so on…For the many number of years for which predictions are to be made, the basic planetary structure and combination and related mathematics is being used for x numbers of years in western astrology.

This is one of the methods used in Western Astrology.

In Indian Astrology, this is not the case. Basically, we tend to make use of the Nirayana method in the calculation process. When it comes to aspects (Parvai):

- All the planets are aspecting the seventh house from wherever they are.
- Guru (Jupiter) is allotted with the 5th and 9th place respectively.
- Mars has special aspects like 4 and 8
- Saturn has special aspects the 3rd and 10th house
- Are taken in to consideration and predictions are given accordingly.

Along with this:

- Predications for each bhava
- Predictions for the bhava lords
- Predictions based on the position of the different bhava lords in different bhavas
- Predictions for planetary combinations in different bhavas
- Predications for planets aspecting each other
- Predications for dasha bhukthi

And several other rules are applicable when it comes to dealing with Indian astrology.

In western astrology, the rules are less. There method of delivering predictions is very easy. In Indian astrology, it is not so. There are several rules and several experiences and facts involved in providing predictions when it comes to dealing with Indian Astrology.

Since western astrology and Indian Astrology have different math and different rules in the dealing, the predictions might not be similar in many ways. The planetary degrees vary greatly between Sayana method and Nirayana method. The predication parameters and planetary degrees taken in to consideration between the two methods vary greatly.

Despite the basic rules and facts applied for each of these individual planets being the same. The mathematical rules applicable for providing with predictions vary a great deal.

Only a valid research methodology would be able to approve of the degree of accuracy involved in the predictions provided in both of these methods. It is not ethical to be one-sided in opinion about whether this method is correct or that method is correct.

If there is an unethical dispute between astrologers, the world of science would soon reject the science of astrology for lack of scientifically verifiable facts.

Sufficient samples have not been compared and studied so far in our research institute. And, we expect to bring more to the table when appropriate research has been done.

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